'-ing' adjectives

A large number of adjectives end in `-ing'.
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related to transitive verbs
Many `-ing' adjectives have the same form as the present participle of a transitive verb, and are similar in meaning. For example, `an astonishing fact' is a fact that astonishes you.

...her annoying habit of repeating what I had just said.

...a brilliantly amusing novel.

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Note that `-ing' adjectives of this kind often describe the person or thing causing a feeling, as in `a boring lecture', whereas `-ed' adjectives describe the person or thing affected by a feeling, as in `a bored student'. See entry at ↑ '-ed' adjectives.
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When a transitive verb does not refer to causing a feeling, you can often put the object of the verb in front of the `-ing' form to form a compound adjective.

The news was listened to by at least half the German-speaking population.

Each colony would be completely self-governing.

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related to intransitive verbs
Some `-ing' adjectives are related to intransitive verbs. They describe processes, changes, or states. For example, if there is a `decreasing' number of things, the number of things is getting smaller; an `existing' law is one which already exists. When an `-ing' word of this kind is used after `be', it forms part of a continuous tense.

The crying made her look so old and vulnerable, like a miserable, sick, ageing monkey.

Much of the world's tanker fleet is ageing.

...an increasing amount of leisure time.

Efficiency and productivity are increasing.

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Here is a list of common `-ing' adjectives related to intransitive verbs:
ageing, bleeding, booming, bursting, decreasing, diminishing, dwindling, dying, existing, increasing, living, prevailing, recurring, reigning, remaining, resounding, rising
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related to verbs but different in meaning
A few `-ing' adjectives are related to verbs in form, but have a different meaning from the usual or commonest meaning of the verb. For example, the verb `dash' usually means `move quickly', but someone or something that is `dashing' is stylish and attractive.

She kept dashing out of the kitchen to give him a kiss.

I used to be told I looked quite dashing.

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The following adjectives have a different meaning from the verb they appear to be related to:
becoming, dashing, disarming, engaging, fetching, halting, promising, retiring, trying
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not related to verbs
A few `-ing' adjectives are not related to verbs at all. For example, there are no verbs `to appetize', `to bald', or `to scathe'. The following `-ing' adjectives are not related to verbs:
appetizing, balding, cunning, enterprising, excruciating, impending, neighbouring, scathing, unwitting

...the appetizing aromas of the dishes I produced for myself.

Pitman glanced at the fat, balding man sitting beside him.

He launched into a scathing attack on Gates.

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used for emphasis in informal speech
A small group of `-ing' adjectives are used in informal speech for emphasis:
blinking, blithering, blooming, flaming, flipping, raving, stinking, thundering
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These adjectives are always used in front of a noun, never after a link verb.

If you plan to join the others, you might tell your blinking brother.

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Several of these adjectives are usually used with a particular noun, as shown in the examples below.

He's in America, according to that blithering idiot Pete.

I knew that I was carrying on a dialogue with a raving lunatic.

Nobody must get in here and make a thundering nuisance of themselves.

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Useful english dictionary. 2012.

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